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9 Important Types of Stainless Steel Pipes and Tubes

6 Important Types of Stainless Steel Pipes and Tubes

Author - Venuswires

Stainless steel is basically a steel alloy with chromium content. When steel is mixed with other elements like chromium, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, carbon, and aluminum it makes an alloy which is called stainless steel. As compared to ordinary steel it is corrosion and rust resistant as well as more stain resistant too. Along with these qualities, low maintenance and luster make it perfect for many applications and industries. It can be milled into sheets, coils, bars, wires, plates, tubes, and pipes. The stainless steel pipes and tubes can be divided into various categories as per the end use.

Pipes of standard stainless steel

The selection of different grades of stainless steel is done as per their performance in different environments and functions. Grade 304 stainless steel is mostly preferred for regular environment applications due to its resistance to chemicals and corrosion. However due to material’s carbon content of .08 percent it leads to carbide precipitation in applications where temperatures are high and ranges between 800 and 1650 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Instead, type 304L stainless steel due to low carbon content in it can be considered ideal for applications where welding and high temperatures are required.

Pressure stainless steel pipes

Pressure stainless steel pipes are either made from a combination of nickel and chromium or from solid chromium. The different types of pressure pipes are

  • Seamless or electric fusion welded pipes for applications with high pressure.
  • Welded pipes with large diameters for high temperature or corrosive applications
  • Welded seamless austenitic and ferritic stainless steel pipes.
  • Corrosion resistant stainless steel pipes and tubes

These pipes are of three varieties. Martensitic types and ferritic types which have a high level of chromium and austenitic type with even more nickel and chromium level which offer more resistance.

Sanitary tubing of stainless steel

These are used where sanitation is a priority like beverage and food processing industries. Generally, sanitary tubing is made of ASTMA270 and is highly resistant to corrosion and requires very low maintenance.

Mechanical tubing of stainless steel

It is used in applications like cylinders, parts which are similarly formed and bearings. Grades ASTMA511 and A554 are generally employed for applications requiring mechanical tubing. Apart from typical round shape tubing, different varieties of rectangular and square cross-sectional shapes can be created.Stainless steel is basically a steel alloy with chromium content. When steel is mixed with other elements like chromium, molybdenum, nickel, silicon, carbon, and aluminum it makes an alloy which is called stainless steel. As compared to ordinary steel it is corrosion and rust resistant as well as more stain resistant too. Along with these qualities, low maintenance and luster make it perfect for many applications and industries. It can be milled into sheets, coils, bars, wires, plates, tubes, and pipes. The stainless steel pipes and tubes can be divided into various categories as per the end use.

Pipes of standard stainless steel

The selection of different grades of stainless steel is done as per their performance in different environments and functions. Grade 304 stainless steel is mostly preferred for regular environment applications due to its resistance to chemicals and corrosion. However due to material’s carbon content of .08 percent it leads to carbide precipitation in applications where temperatures are high and ranges between 800 and 1650 degrees Fahrenheit (F). Instead, type 304L stainless steel due to low carbon content in it can be considered ideal for applications where welding and high temperatures are required.

Pressure stainless steel pipes

Pressure stainless steel pipes are either made from a combination of nickel and chromium or from solid chromium. The different types of pressure pipes are Seamless or electric function

Stainless steel Hydraulic line tubing

Manufactured from 304 or 304L types of stainless steel it is used in hydraulic systems and fuel lines. With small diameters, these tubes are corrosion resistant and durable.

Aircraft Stainless steel tubing

Aircraft applications are highly specific so heat and corrosion resistant nickel and chromium stainless steel is used for it. Applications requiring high strength use stainless steel tubes. For welded stainless steel tubes and parts, stainless steel with low carbon is preferred. For applications requiring seamless as well as welded tubing, aircraft structural material which is manufactured as per Aerospace Material Specifications (AMS) or Military Specifications (MIL Specs) is used.

It is always better to consult an experienced industry expert when choosing the right type of stainless steel pipes and tubes for your application to avoid any future problems.

Different Welding Styles and Techniques

How to Weld Properly? An Overview of Different Welding Styles and Techniques

Author - Venuswires

All about Welding Methods and Techniques
Welding might seem like a difficult process but in reality, it is quite easy and inexpensive. Welding is joining two materials usually metals together by heating them till they become a molten hot weld puddle which is used in creating a weld bead. Given below are tips for proper welding.
Follow all the safety rules and use Personal Protection Equipment (PPE)
Assure adequate ventilation and keep inflammable materials away.
Keep all the tools and equipment handy.
Clean the metal before welding for a good quality weld.
Cut the metal accurately and set it in the exact position you want to weld them in.
Adjust the settings of the welder as required.
Clean the excess slag with chipping hammer.
Different welding methods and techniques
Welding goes back to blacksmiths using the heating forge to heat the metal and hammering the metal to fuse them together. It’s called forge welding. This was an old way of welding. Given below are different welding methods and techniques.

1. Oxy- Acetylene Welding

Equipment for oxy-acetylene welding includes two tanks one including the oxygen and the other acetylene, regulator assemblies on top of tanks and hoses leading from regulators to torch handles. Basically, the torch is used to create a molten puddle of metal on work then the end of welding rod is put into the molten puddle. The rod melts and mixes with molten metal leading to the bonding of two pieces. Too much or too little heat can spoil your welding. Good technique needs the correct intensity of the torch, making a good puddle, moving puddle at the right rate and feeding the right rod amount. Adjusting the torch correctly is the key to a good weld too.

2. Arc Welding or Stick welding

It is a process of using filler rod as an electrode and electric arc to join two metals by melting the metal. The process includes establishing an arc to simultaneously melt work as well as rod so that the rod can be deposited on the work. Establishing an arc requires scratching the end of electrode across your work. When the spark jumps the electrode’s, tip has to be slightly moved away from work. It should not be moved too far leading to the breaking of the arc or too close leading to the electrode sticking to your work. Good technique is leading the electrode with the arc very little so that the developing puddle could be seen. You should keep the continuously melting electrode closer to your work while welding. Rapidly moving weld might lead to a weak weld.

3. MIG Welding or Wire Feed Welding

MIG or Metal Inert Gas welding is the arc welding process that requires a constant welding electrode in the form of feeding wire. In MIG welding Inert gases like argon and co2 help in shielding weld puddle from gases like oxygen and nitrogen which are present in the atmosphere and which can lead to a weakening of the weld. Spools of wires used in MIG welding can be stainless steel welding wire, mild steel wire or aluminum wire. These spools whether it is of stainless steel MIG wires or of any other material may contain not only hundreds but thousands of meters/ feet of wire. Setting the electricity arc intensity and wire feed rate correctly according to the material is the best technique for better MIG welding.

Lastly practicing your welding skills will help you in getting the perfect welds. Starting with the least expensive arc welder is a good idea.

5basic tips to Flux Cored Arc Welding

5 basic tips to Flux Cored Arc Welding

Author - Venuswires

Flux cored arc welding is an arc welding process which can be both automatic as well as semi automatic and requires continuous feeding of the tubular consumable electrode which contains a flux and constant power supply for welding. As compared to submerged melt welding which can only do welding in horizontal or flat position, flux cored arc welding is suitable for many different positions. Using welding you can make really good stuff with metal but safety rules related to welding should be followed. Here are some basic tips to be followed for flux cored arc welding.

1. Have the required tools at hand

All the required equipments and tools along with Personal Protection Equipment (PPE) like leather welding jacket, welding masks, gloves, safety glasses, ear protection should all be used. As compared to sub arc welding which due to no arc flashes requires minimum protective clothing. Other equipments like chipping hammer, pliers, wire brush, grinder, clamps, metal ruler/ tape measure, magnets, fume extractor along with the welder should be available at the welding place. A proper distance should be maintained between inflammable materials and the welding area

2. Secure and clean the metal

Flux cored arc welding done on clean metal will definitely improve the quality of the weld. So it is better to clean the metal before welding using a grinder, grinder with a wire wheel or some wire brush. The metal should be secured with clamps before using a grinder on it.

3. Cut and set the metal right

After cleaning the metal is cut in the correct and required length. For accuracy, it should be scribed or marked correctly using a sharpie or a soap stone and a straight edge ruler. It is better to secure the piece with clamps before you start cutting. After cutting it is important to set your piece in the exact position you want them to weld in. You need to device some jig like using magnets so that you can get the pieces where you want them. When you are sure you have all the pieces in the exact position where you want them you can start welding.

4. Welding

Before starting the welding, you should always check that the settings of the welder are as per the requirement. Higher voltage and wire speed is required for thicker metals. After setting the welder, all corners of the work piece should be tack welded in a way that both sides of the metal should be fused together. Attention should be paid, to where the weld metal is depositing when you are pulling the trigger on the torch and that the work piece is hit exactly where the two pieces are in contact. Welded area should be cleaned using a wire brush to remove slag. Then bead welds should be used to fill the remaining seams. Special attention should be paid to how the welds appearance is being affected by the angle of the torch, electrical stick out and travel speed. A consistency is required in all these three categories.

5. Final cleanup

Wire brush and chipping hammer should be used to remove all the slag and spatter before starting the grinding. You can always reweld the defects if any.

Flux cored arc welding is a very productive welding process. Due to the high efficiency and quality welds of flux cored arc welding, it is highly used in ship building industry.

Submerged Arc Welding

Submerged Arc Welding Production Advantages

Author - Venuswires

Steel is being used hugely in wide range of applications, particularly the construction of buildings, ships, bridges and industrial/enterprise lines. The definitive attributes of steel like it being rust resistant, temperature tolerant, extremely high strength and high elasticity make it an uncontested choice. Along with the increasing use of SS and other steels in fabrication activities, sciences have been also geared to develop dedicated techniques of conditioning it. This becomes particularly relevant because steel is a difficult material to be worked upon; especially if it’s welding is attempted. Submerged arc welding (SAW) or submerged melt welding is one such technique of welding the steel alloys of diversity. The results through this technique are very refined and finesse driven to suit the precise applications that are least tolerant to dimensional changes.

The advantages of sub arc welding make it the preferred choice for steel fabrication. Most of the advantages are actually derived from the process itself that involves the presence of a flux channel that shields the entire welding zone including the arc, the weld point and the electrode that is being consumed. This is also the reason that it is called as ‘submerged’! Here are the prime advantages of submerged arc welding –

1. The flux in the molten state allows high current to flow through it. This higher current reinforces the efficiency of the entire welding process. The direct implication is the intensification of the heat that makes welding more efficient. This further means that sub arc welding will be effective to develop thicker and deeper joints that are not possible by other arc techniques.

2. The high heat concentration in the welding joint increases the speed of process significantly. The timelines are thus reduced and more of the work could be done.

3. Welding distortions are the undesirable characteristics that are hard to eliminate in steel joints. However, with the submerged melt welding technique these distortions and anomalies are less existent because the high heat and better speed of metal deposition negates the possibility of the inconsistencies.

4. The presence of the flux channel eliminates the sparks and flashes and also prevents the splatter and splash of molten metal on the welding workers. This is a great advantage that is directly related to flux.

5. Quality of the weld is high with superior level of uniformity and also corrosion resistance.

6. The presence of flux that shields the arc and weld joint throughout also prevents the contamination of the metal deposition. This is a fine advantage derived from sub arc welding.

7. This type of welding technique is useful in outdoor where there is high wind speed as the flux prevents the impact of wind on process.

8. There is no requirement of the preparation of the edge before attempting the welding.

These advantages are superb and makes sub arc welding the best choice for steel fabrication tasks.

Welded and Seamless Stainless Steel Tubing Fabrication

Welded and Seamless Stainless Steel Tubing Fabrication

Author - Venuswires

Stainless steel could be called as one of the finest innovations in the evolution of mankind. SS is a much later intervention as compared to the base metal iron, the discovery of which was made in the primitive ages in different Iron Age cultures. Steel is a more superior variant and is an alloy that is now used in multiple applications because of its noted characteristics like rust and corrosion resistance, high stress tolerance, high elasticity and extreme strength. To suit the different application areas, we have also developed capabilities to make variety of products from SS. Stainless steel tubing is one such product segment. These tubes are made in different dimensions, thickness, composition and welded and seamless stainless steel tubing types.

It is interesting to note that while stainless steel is very sturdy and elastic alloy of iron, the same attributes also make the fabrication and molding/conditioning of it very difficult. Hence, the fabrication methods are very specialized so as to ensure the best results and precision dimensions. The techniques to manufacture welded and seamless stainless steel tubing are different and warrant certain pre-requisites to develop the products of desirability. Here is an overview about the processes involved in the fabrication of these two types of SS tubes.

The welded stainless steel tubes

The process involves the use of steel rolls that are unfolded and cut into specific widths depending on the dimensions of the tube to be produced. These SS strips of definite width are then subjected to machining to generate the cylindrical shape. The two ends are then welded together through the welding rolls to make it a tube. The basic function is now complete with the formation of SS tube but the finishing and precision tasks are still to be worked and these include the ‘weld bead conditioning’. For the thin walled tube, ‘weld forgiving technique’ is used while for the thicker walled stainless steel tubing, ‘weld rolldown’ technique is employed. The SS tubes now need to be sized as per the requirements of dimension, roundness and straightness.

Seamless stainless steel tubing

Seamless stainless steel tubes do not have any weld joint and thus are matched for specific applications that are precise and require uniform surface characteristics like for flow of fluids in engine parts or industrial ambiences. The seamless SS tubes can be made through any of the three processes which are –
Piercing –

a SS bar is fed through a piercing machining that makes a hole in it. This is following by rolling and heating process to develop the tube

Extrusion –

it involves feeding a SS bar into a tube which is worked through a dye to make the stainless steel tubing

Gun drilling –

a round SS bar is inserted in the drill that transforms it into a tube. The finish is superior although the technique is expensive!

Through such refined processes, the industry now has diversity of SS tubes products to make use of in different applications.

How stainless steel helps with stand natural disasters

How stainless steel helps withstand natural disasters

Author - Venuswires

Humans have been engaged in discoveries and innovations since the oldest days & even prior to civilization. The objective has been to simplify life and living and improve the quality, strength and durability attributes. In our long journey of evolution till age, there were definitely some milestone achievements and iron and steel could be counted among this segment. Though the development of iron and steel are separated by centuries of a gap, these two products have changed the landscape; especially if talk of their uses in the construction sector. Steel has now become the indispensable component in the making of sturdy and magnificent structures that could be really boasted of. Stainless steel rods and other products are actively utilized to ensure high strength and resilience of the building against all types of disasters including the natural calamities. It won’t be incorrect to say that stainless steel helps to withstand the adverse impacts and losses caused by natural disasters! Let’s see how steel has become such important in negating the impacts of natural calamities.

1. High strength and resilience

Stainless steel is an alloy of iron that is produced by adding minor quantities of elements like chromium, carbon and others. Various types of steel like 304, 316 have differing alloying compositions. However, every type of SS is invariably known for the extremely high strength and resilience against stresses. Stainless steel pipes and tubes and also wires are therefore used in buildings, bridges and other structures to deliver high strength and thus ensure long life without any issues. High impact storms cannot affect SS structures thus preventing the losses.

2. Corrosion and rust resistance

Another salient attribute of SS is its rust resistance. Steel is almost unaffected by the rusting agents like water/moisture, salinity and oxygen. The stainless steel pipes and tubes that are used to make bridges have proved highly versatile and developed least signs of corrosion even after decades and centuries in different parts of the world. When the natural disaster like cyclone, storm etc strikes then these SS structures stand tall without any losses; because rust cannot destroy the base material that remains intact.

3. Elasticity quotient is very high for stainless steel

Stainless steel is an alloy with one of the highest elasticity quotients among whole range of products. This means that the effect of vibration like during earthquakes is minimum on the buildings and structures that are built with stainless steel rods and girders. The steel rods that are used as reinforcements in the concrete pillars prevent the collapsing of the structure thus averting huge losses.

4. Temperature tolerance

SS is very tolerant to temperature induced changes. This means that the extreme temperatures cannot effectively denature the steel and the properties of elasticity and strength are retained. Very low temperatures do not make steel brittle while high temperatures do not melt it. Thus SS is perfect construction option in high temperature variability climates.

5. Extremely long life and least metal fatigue!

Stainless steel rods and wires do not develop much of metal fatigue when under continuous stress. Therefore these are used in making mammoth size suspension bridges that brace the sea storms without getting broke.

These qualities of stainless steel make it a fine construction and reinforcement material and also prevents the losses from the natural disasters of diversity.

What Makes Special Bar Quality (SBQ) Steel So Special?

What Makes Special Bar Quality (SBQ) Steel So Special?

Author - Venuswires

Our romance with metals and metallurgy is very old and communities were inspired to do the refinements towards making use of metals in various tasks; however, the major push was received through the consistent and broad demand in the royal artilleries which led to further interventions in metallurgical pursuits. The iron was among the first inventions and it has continued to dominate the demand spectrum till age when we stand at the high point of development.

One intervention that could be hailed as very special is that of ‘steel’ – an alloy derived from iron but which carries marvelous attributes of extreme sturdiness, corrosion resistance and capacity to bear stresses! These attributes make it a valuable product in construction and engineering – that constitute the backbone of development and growth synergies for last two centuries! With such significance of steel, attempts were made towards further improvisations like special bar quality (SBQ) steels.

SBQ steels demanded for high stress applications!

Special bar quality (SBQ) steels can be defined as those which are developed for challenging and high stress applications. Thus, these steels stand out different & tall among a diversity of grades that are in use in the enterprising processes. The SBQ steels have thus emerged as the mandatory requirements in various applications like those defined by high speed machining, high stress and high tensile strength among other finer attributes of engineering and metallurgy. The SBQ steels are today offered by manufacturers in the form of stainless steel bar, steel round bar, flats, tubes and other products of demand and relevance in manufacturing economy. These are mostly used in the development of bearings, high speed shafts, gears and other vital products that have to be resistant to the metal fatigue through prolonged and continuous use as moving parts in machineries/automobiles.

How are SBQ steels made special?

Speaking from the perspective of a metallurgist, special bar quality (SBQ) steels exhibit very high stress resilience and associated metal fatigue tolerance. These attributes define precisely the SBQ steels and make them apt for versatile applications where authentic efficiency parameters are strictly demanded. However, to ensure such high characteristics, the manufacturers of SBQ steels need to be guarded throughout so that there are no discrepancies. The most fundamental parameters that are controlled include the chemical composition and purity quotient of the steel and the mechanical properties like hardening that is achieved through thermal treatment processes. Impurities in the steel could drastically bring down the fatigue life cycle duration of the component while cleaner steels have very high metal fatigue tolerance even under continuous run conditions!

The purity is also directly related to the thermally induced hardness (stress) resilience attributes; because it could be affected if impurities are present in the steel body. Stainless steel bar, steel round bar, flats etc made with SBQ steel thus guarantee the best results when converted into components of practical use.

 The weldability of stainless steels

The weldability of stainless steels

Author - Venuswires

Steel is an alloy with base metal iron in majority proportion while other components that are present in it could vary thus forming different types of alloy grades. While steel and stainless steel have emerged very demanded because of their desirable attributes of extreme hardness, stress tolerance, and corrosion resistance, the secondary and tertiary level manufacturers of steel products encountered difficulty in welding and fabricating the steel products; mainly because steels behave differently as compared to iron due to their specific microstructures! Now, we have specialty welding techniques for different types of steels and elaborate manuals have been also developed consequent to deep researches on steel welding techniques. The weldability of stainless steel is now a different niche and requires a precise understanding of the parameters apart from specific skills and wider experience on the part of the welder. Here is an overview of different steel types and the welding processes best suited to them.

The most important attributes related to steel welding is the implications on HAZ or heat affected zone which suffers super high temperatures. Due to this heat impact, the mechanical properties of this zone could be altered and moreover, the susceptibility to corrosion could be increased – an implication that is undesirable. HAZ often develops cracking characteristics during cooling post welding. The welders have to take appropriate precautions to prevent such results; while the precautions also differ from one to other type of steel.

The austenitic stainless steel

These steels contain 18 – 28% chromium and 8 – 22% nickel and can be welded through the arc welding techniques. The most commonly employed welding techniques for austenitic steels are MIG, TIG, MMA, and SA. There is no requirement for heating before or after welding and toughness is generally good. However, to reduce the possibility of HAZ cracking, it is recommended that filler materials are used which are slightly differing alloys of steel. For example, when welding type 304 SS, type 308 SS filler material could use. Generally, presence of 5 – 10% ferrite alloys is considered good while welding the austenitic steels. The appropriate balance of the two could be found through the Schaeffler Diagram.

Ferritic stainless steel

The ferritic stainless steel contains chromium in the range of 11 – 28%. Stainless steel grade 430 and 407 are common types under the ferritic SS. These steels could be welded through the fusion techniques but the welder needs to take precautions to prevent the development of coarse grains in the HAZ. The coarse-grained structure generally reduces the toughness. Use of austenitic fillers and pre-heat application are recommended.

Martensitic stainless steel

This type of steel has a chromium content of 12 – 18% but the carbon content is high which makes it hardenable, particularly the HAZ that suffer the extreme heat. Use of matching welding material is considered good option to avoid HAZ cracking.

Duplex stainless steel

These steels have equal proportions of ferritic steel and austenitic steel with chromium content in the range of 22 – 26%. These could be welded easily through different techniques but the heat input and filler choice are important here.

 5 WAYS BRIGHT BARS CAN IMPROVE YOUR BUSINESS

5 WAYS BRIGHT BARS CAN IMPROVE YOUR BUSINESS

Author - Venuswires

The manufacturing sector is one of the oldest segments of the economy and still continues robustly, serving a mammoth diversity of products and materials for the primary, secondary and tertiary needs of the social economy. However, this sector demands competitiveness skills on the part of the entrepreneur who has to maintain the cost coupled with quality and ease of production in consonance with the emergent demand dynamics. These balances are not easy for sure! To aid the manufacturing and enterprising orientations, various technologies and process improvements have been developed which are aimed at supporting the entrepreneur in the above mentioned challenges. In the iron and steel sector, secondary firms and ancillaries seek such products and technologies that help them maintain a healthy operational and fiscal momentum. Leading bright bar manufacturers in India opine that these can be helpful in improving the business capacities and worth. Let’s see how these could improve a business!

High accuracy in dimensions

Stainless steel bright bars are known for the high accuracy dimensional attributes that make them perfect for manufacturing specialty products of direct use like the fasteners, tools and custom implements. All such applications require a high degree of dimensional accuracy which bright bars offer. The enterprises that rely on the SS bright bars get an advantage due to perfect dimensions and thus very high quality is ensured that fetches good rates in the market for the manufacturer.

High strength and hence superior impact resilience during machining

SS bright bars, in particular, have the high strength and impact resilience and hence these are well suited for rigorous machining operations towards making diverse components or tools of custom and generic use. Stainless steel is a highly elastic alloy and thus has high tensile strength also; it does not loose shape and dimensions easily through the machining impacts. Stainless steel manufacturers are offering different sizes and grades of SS bright bars towards the needs of enterprises.

Better surface characteristics in terms of finish

Bright bars are known for the high quality surface finish which is exhibited in the form of straightness and end point cross section. This reduces the requirement on the part of the manufacturer to further work out perfection like through grinding and polishing. Thus overall, a better cost economy is developed in the production process.

Less maintenance

Stainless steel bright bars, as said above are very sturdy and resilient against impacts and hence there is the least wear and tear during warehousing and transportation of these. The cost of maintenance for these bars is thus negligible.

Less wear and tear cost for the machines that work on the bright bars

Wear and tear of the machines that are fed with the SS bright bars is much reduced because of the high dimensional accuracy and hence stability during the machining process. The processing time ‘vibration’ is least with the SS bright bars and this also reduces the wear and tear of the machine.

These five attributes make the enterprising with stainless steel bright bars much economical and quality oriented for the company and thus improves its overall business worth!

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